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Other volumes Virtual, Augmented and Mixed Reality. They also feared being criticized and showed a lack of confidence, which prevented them from joining green initiatives. They also felt that events should provide some incentives to youth who participated —in the form of money or some other rewards. All stakeholder groups agreed that governments and private companies could do more to engage youth in environmental movements.
Box 9: Private sector perspective on youth participation Private sector participants recognize that the government is taking some action on climate change with a focus on renewable energy and other environmental policies. This happens across several different ministries. But there is also some level of suspicion around transparency and doubt as to whether the government always tells the full story.
In line with youth leaders, private sector participants had not seen much participation from youth with respect to policy formulation. However, many young people are active, and they lead several environmental initiatives. Some pointed out that there are signs that things are changing and youth are becoming increasingly involved.
But there needs to be more support from the government and the private sector can help. In short, youth can have a role in terms of speaking out and providing ideas, while the government should listen and generate supporting policies, followed by collaborative implementation.
Limited numbers of training opportunities were organized outside schools. They also feared some criticisms from their friends and family and felt that they did not have enough knowledge or experience to participate. There seemed to be no apparent difference between genders or participants who were from urban and rural areas. Despite these similarities, there were a number of barriers identified as below. National approaches to sustainability and environment have led to increasing efforts in the Mekong countries to include climate change mitigation and adaptation strategies at the policy level, but these efforts need to translate into practical livelihood options around green and environmentally sustainable job opportunities if they are to attract youth and create sustainable economies.
Skills development can lead to empowerment by enhancing the capacity of an individual or group to make choices leading to desired actions and outcomes. About half of all youth participants in all countries aspired to own a business, and the other half were interested in choosing a profession or a job that was more aligned with their lines of studies.
Most youth prioritize financial security when considering work options. In Cambodia, some youth were interested in green jobs as they had an interest in preserving the environment and motivating future generations to follow suit. Others did not think they had the skills or experience needed to solve environmental problems: this was a common sentiment reflected in the other two countries.
They did not feel encouraged by their families to pursue any unconventional job as it was considered a risk. Youth in Cambodia would consider working in green jobs if these jobs provided them with financial security. Their choice of a green job would most likely be opening a business using locally sourced materials.
These findings were consistent with those from the expert groups. Green businesses interviewed for this study recognized the importance of capacity building for youth. One of the green businesses interviewed suggested that the government should encourage members of the private sector by giving them incentives to be more environmental-friendly and reduce their emissions of greenhouse gases.
Similarly Thai youth have limited thoughts about engaging in green jobs. Many would like to start their own business such as coffee shops, bakeries, restaurants, or clothing products from locally sourced materials because they want the freedom to pursue their passions and do not want to be dependent on an employer. There was a slight difference in work aspirations with more boys and young men wanting to work in technical jobs and more girls and young women wanting to work in the social development field.
Some Thai youth wanted to work in organic farming, energy and environmentally friendly products. In terms of barriers, rural youth were also concerned about competition, lack of skills and lack of citizenship documents41 that could restrict their ability to move. Given an opportunity to pursue green jobs with financial security, Thai youth were likely to pursue jobs in tourism, marine conservation and agriculture.
According to the interviews with green businesses in Thailand, most companies provide training for new employees as well as set up activities in local communities. They believed the private sector has done a great deal to support the transition to a green economy and capacity building for their future workforce. The youth participants were unaware of these opportunities. However, if the government is even more flexible in the policy framework, it could promote business.
The local school and government should identify available resources in the community and explore its potential uses in the production of goods and services. One representative of a green business suggested that both biotechnology and circular economy are important for the country since the agricultural sector has been a bedrock sector in Thailand. The industrial sector needs to provide more support to agriculture to stimulate greater sustainability.
The Thai government should see this as an opportunity for creating resilience for the country through import substitution, reducing overseas employment, and reducing reliance on foreign technology. In Viet Nam, youth did not have an interest or perceived knowledge of green jobs. Vietnamese youth felt green jobs were never discussed as career options in schools and are probably not likely to offer financial security. The understanding of green or environmental-friendly jobs seemed slightly lower than in the other countries, and some even mistook them to mean manual jobs like street sweeping.
A few Vietnamese youths mentioned the bamboo-straw industry as a promising opportunity, but most were not interested. According to the interview with a renewable energy business in Viet Nam, green businesses have not received any particular support nor incentives from the government.
It was suggested that the government should improve environmental education and encourage young people through scholarships. The green business interviewed also mentioned that some companies recruited and provided training to students. I train them in many things, including how to install solar energy equipment, pricing, and the origin of solar energy. I have to train them in marketing and sales for solar energy. Generally speaking, I have to train them from the beginning, and there is so much to share.
Some suggest that the government may discourage youth from being empowered due to a fear of being criticized. NGOs and other development organizations are seen to be more supportive. There have been conferences and other events where youth have participated to gain knowledge about environmental issues. The education system is not geared to empower youth, either. Students tend to be taught to be followers as opposed to learning how to speak out and take risks.
Having said that, youth leaders agree that youth should have the right to express their opinions. It is essential for youth to be surrounded by people who also want to see change; this can inspire and encourage young people to voice their opinions and take action.
Youth aspire to own businesses rather than being employed. Teachers can have a big impact on teaching kids about what is happening in the world and how we can fix things. Local government can set an example for children and do campaigns on how to change the world and to have a greener lifestyle. Kids learn by example; this can have a huge effect. Private companies can do the same thing.
However, only a few youth participants believe that they have learned skills in school that can help them to be employed in green jobs. For instance, in Cambodia, some youth believe that the skills they have learned in schools, such as agriculture and tourism, will help them in green jobs.
There was some difference between rural and urban youth in terms of skills for potential green jobs. Rural schools had more vocational subjects; for example, agriculture, handicrafts, and farming practices. In comparison, urban schools focused more on technology.
Since young people did not identify many opportunities for formal education and vocational training, the discussion focused on what could be improved. The participants recommended that schools and vocational trainers provide short courses and training for skill development. In addition, the experts suggested that schools should respond more to labour market demand and national commitments to sustainability. This requires the design of new training programmes for both students and people who are not in the education system.
In that way, green jobs would become more widely accessible, and young people would have opportunities to be trained in different skills needed for them. In Thailand, most youth respondents believed that schools do not empower them with the skills needed for green jobs and green jobs are not promoted as a career path. Rural youth were more exposed to vocational subjects as well as to the outdoors and nature that helped them understand the nature of some green jobs.
On the other hand, most youth and stakeholders interviewed also felt that schools in rural areas do not have the same capacity as schools in urban areas in terms of quality, resources, and access to information.
However, there was no real difference in the awareness levels of rural and urban youth. The government should take an active part in making it happen in all government schools. In Viet Nam, the perception was similar, and most youth believed they had some theoretical knowledge on natural science, social science and geography that helped them understand the fundamentals of environment and climate change.
The universities also had specialized courses in environmental science and energy, which could be helpful in pursuing green jobs. However, most youth believed that schools did not prepare them with adequate job skills for any green jobs. This potential is not tapped fully at present. In Thailand, some extracurricular support was provided by schools, universities and the government and came in the form of training, activities and campaigns.
Examples of these included waste collection campaigns, planting mangroves, making straw pillows, and working with hill tribes. There are also some volunteer activities and camps at school for young people that focus on environmental conservation. In Viet Nam and Cambodia, there were even fewer extracurricular opportunities that provided youth with opportunities to build green skills. Youth from Viet Nam had some volunteering opportunities for environmental campaigns.
In Viet Nam, all training or extracurricular activities are primarily supported by the government, and all stakeholders including youth and adult groups recommended governments to provide some training and financial support to learn green skills and start green enterprises.
Participation from governments in partnership with private sectors was recommended as a way to develop green skills Box Government perspective on youth empowerment The view that youth do not fully understand the issue of climate change and the resulting limited avenues for them to participate in decision-making translates to a direct lack of empowerment. Government officials did not hide this fact and confirmed that no real effort had been made to do so. Examples of what the government is doing include supporting scholarships and training.
But currently, there does not appear to be an avenue for youth to have direct involvement in the policy process. But being surrounded by people who want to do more, you start to push and do things. That is contagious, and as the community grows, more solutions emerge. The solidarity that we are not alone means we can help each other to achieve goals.
It helps when there are more people. Networking and collaborating with their available resources also help. People learn that if they work together and express their opinions, they have the power to change things. Encourage young children to make a difference, and they need to be heard by the government and other people. There is hope that we can change. We have always been taught to achieve our goals when kids come to the event and are inspired that things can be changed.
They learn to take risks and push forward, be more resilient and have compassion for themselves and other. While youth aspired to be independent, in all three countries they are not confident about their leadership skills and do not feel they have enough support to become leaders. While they could build some online networks, most think that social norms do not encourage youth to voice their concerns or take leadership roles. In the current political climate, in countries like Thailand, Viet Nam and Cambodia, youth movements related to climate change are at risk of being seen more as signs of political dissent than as positive models for change.
Young green business owners in Thailand and stakeholders in Cambodia expressed concerns that this might explain why there are few youth-led environmental campaigns in these countries. In Cambodia, while youth feel that they should be at the frontline solving environmental issues, they also fear for their safety, including a fear of getting arrested or detained by police. Some mentioned a fear of getting harassed by people they may expose for their unsustainable behaviours.
In Thailand, young people perceived a lack of confidence to lead and instead wanted key influencers and opinion leaders to organize activities, so they could participate in them. They feared criticisms and did not know their rights for free expression and leadership. Environmental initiatives are often not prioritized because there is a strong focus on profit-making ventures. In many instances, climate change issues are business-driven rather than policy-driven.
The private sector will take the initiative, and policy will follow. In this climate, youth empowerment appears to be a challenge, and there does not appear to be much evidence that it is happening. Private sector participants believe youth should be supported more, but more likely they will need to embark on initiatives of their own to push for change.
Youth are generally comfortable with social media and can be a powerful channel to voice their concerns and influence others. There is a sense, however, that things are getting better, but change is gradual and slow. There are social norms that expect youth to follow the status quo.
Countries in the region such as Cambodia, Thailand and Viet Nam have made international and national commitments to tackle climate change and pursue green growth strategies. As the countries prosper economically with an increasing prioritization of green growth, employment landscapes will change, and youth will need new skills, including green skills, to adapt to these changes and new opportunities.
There are limited sustainable efforts to provide opportunities for young people to be a part of discourses and actions on the green economy. Currently, there are very few interventions designed to empower youth — not only in the context of moving towards a green economy but also in the context of empowerment and leadership in general.
Youth participating in the survey often did not feel empowered and had a self-limiting belief that they are not adequately skilled to lead: this feeling of lack of empowerment may even run deeper for young girls and marginalized youth. Interventions designed by schools, governments and non-governmental institutions should focus on youth capacity development on leadership and empowerment. These interventions should also ensure the involvement of young people from different backgrounds in the design process so that all youth benefit equitably from the interventions.
Not all young people are the same — and it is important to acknowledge that youth may come from very different backgrounds and have different concerns, capacities and visions for their future. While this study was exploratory in nature and conducted with a small sample, further research will be needed to deepen our understanding of the needs of youth in the region, including differences between young boys and girls, rural and urban youth, young people of different economic classes and different abilities.
Integrated and Participatory Government Responses The policy context of the countries and their various international and national commitments show that there is a momentum for green growth and green economy in these countries. Youth have minimal opportunities for participation in either national policy processes or green movements at both the national and regional level. There is a need for decentralized and local-level policy dialogues where youth can openly and regularly participate.
Each country has committed to strategies on climate change, green growth and youth development, but they are often regarded as very separate issues. Often, the Ministry of Education and Ministry of Labour are either not aware of their national environmental commitments or have not factored them into their education and employment activities. There needs to be a coordinated mechanism in the ministries to ensure youth are being supported in different areas, including potential employment and green jobs.
The role of the Ministry of Youth could be elevated and become a central player in green economy strategy development and implementation. Youth ministries are typically not involved in setting strategy for education or employment. Given the emphasis of youth policies on education, health and employment, this gap relegates youth ministry initiatives to be treated more like small side-projects.
The potential for youth to play a leading role in shifting behaviour towards sustainability, this disconnect needs urgent attention. All participants in this research agreed that young women and men have opinions, but they need adults to listen and take their views into consideration.
However, there has been no effort to collaborate and bring up their concerns on the environment and climate change as a collective voice, and there is no common strategic agenda to strengthen their influence in political activities and decision-making.
Youth need an open legal policy framework that allows them to freely express themselves in a transparent and open platform and encourages young people to be proactive in participating and engaging in policy- making, adaptation, mitigation and nature-based solutions.
This would provide recognition and acknowledgement of the role of young people in transitioning to a green economy. The participation of vulnerable groups also needs to be taken into consideration in policy-making processes such as pregnant women, children, the underprivileged, and those with disabilities.
This taskforce would examine the areas of overlap and develop strategies to strengthen integration and create explicit linkages with the youth agenda and opportunities for youth participation. These could be supported by both individual ministries or through collaboration on the topics of common interest.
Social media platforms, including Facebook and Twitter, may be used at the national level for youth engagement and feedback. At the local level, there should be a forum or a community meeting providing opportunities for youth to share their concerns and ideas. The government could provide funding opportunities and technical support to local initiatives engaging youth in climate actions. Engagement with the private sector The private sector plays a pivotal role in every aspect of achieving a greener economy.
Companies provide the jobs, products and services that drive the national economy. The skills they seek and the environmental standards they promote influence national economic, education and employment policies. Two key findings of the research show the importance of this sector in influencing youth decisions about employment: earning a decent wage and having a level of independence in livelihood. Young people who participated in the study from the three countries are aware of climate change and its impacts in general and are worried about a financially secure future.
The private sector is hence in a position to influence youth decisions about green jobs. Young people live with contrasting realities insofar as while they are interested in the well-being of the planet and know the significance of climate change mitigation efforts, their primary concerns remain personal survival and financial security. With weak social security, high unemployment rates and lack of decent jobs, youth in the region understandably prioritize long-term financial security over sustainability issues when seeking employment.
There is clearly little information on green economy, green skills and the prospects of green jobs available to young people. The growing green sector in all three countries does not seems to be an attractive career path, although in terms of wage potential, it is not necessarily less attractive. Together with the engagement of government institutions, the private sector should also engage with youth and help build their capacities, as they are the future labour force.
The businesses can also help mentor youth by sharing experiences and lessons learnt, and providing opportunities for internships and skill-building. The mentor programme would enable youth to learn from people with experience in the field. Partnerships with the educational institutions and the government to develop joint training and joint projects with schools, universities and vocational schools in green areas.
The current generation of youth looks for independence, challenges and opportunity to express their ideas. Entrepreneurship can offer such an opportunity. Being part of training programmes and internships can give them the experience and skills needed to inspire them to take their own initiatives. Such programmes may need financial support to be effective but could encourage youth to develop start-ups. Environmental considerations should be integrated into all different types of jobs.
By making workplaces more sustainable and environment- friendly, companies can save energy, cost and resources as well as contribute to climate change solutions. The format of the sponsorship should be flexible, and examples could include supporting school career fairs or sharing knowledge on sustainable action. Apart from good branding, this would also present an opportunity for companies to source talent.
This could be especially useful in rural areas as the youth there are closer to nature but have fewer job opportunities than urban youth. Skills Development and Careers As with the overall policy environment, education has moved forward substantially in terms of content on environmental sustainability and climate change. The level of uptake varies by country and also by the level and type of education. High school is generally the most advanced, with some excellent examples also in university education.
However, there are some continuing issues and opportunities for further improvement. Sustainable Development Goals should also be included in the curriculum. At the moment, content on SDGs only exists in some programmes at the university level. Students should be taught about the SDGs from earlier years starting at the elementary level. Neither school-based career advice nor industry employment services appear to offer advice in this area. Relatively few youths understand what the term means and youth in all three countries assumed that jobs emphasizing sustainability and environment are not well paid; it is an area that requires additional research and in particular analysis of remuneration possibilities.
Skills such as management, marketing or communication skills, into the secondary school curriculum can be used as real-world examples potential green career options with real-world examples. This skills training will need to reflect the labour market needs, including future needs, which thus requires greater partnership between the government and the private sector.
Since in most cases STEM is associated with boys more than girls, more efforts should be made to encourage girls to participate. In their position, teachers are responsible for leading school clubs, which could offer a better range of environmental activities in extracurricular programmes. Providing environmental club toolkits would enable teachers to run more interesting and effective activities.
To make these extracurricular activities more effective, teachers need to explain the rationale behind environmental activities organized by schools in order to motivate and ensure long-term behaviour changes. Support career counselling and orientation programmes that promote groups of jobs that can be promoted in green industries like renewable energy, as well as jobs in the traditional sectors that integrate sustainability to enable students to explore more career options, including green jobs.
Youth-led action Young people are both beneficiaries and actors in development. In this study, young people often identified themselves as followers with low confidence in their abilities to add value to decision-making processes. They usually do not see themselves as empowered enough to be leaders, although they aspire to be independent.
How young people see themselves is often a reflection of how society views them. Social norms in most countries in the region are not conducive to youth being free and voicing their concerns publicly or taking up a cause for campaigns and actions. Supporting youth-led actions through skills building, creation of networks and providing incentives or financial aid, widens access and opportunities for young people.
Though the research shows that there is a high level of awareness of issues such as climate change, many young people are not aware of how they could become involved in action to address these issues, or lack the confidence to do so. School clubs are one mechanism that is quite widely available; however, the research shows that these clubs generally do not offer many environmental options and youth do not play a role in designing them.
Each country has different established mechanisms to support youth-led action. For example, in Viet Nam the Youth Union has established national outreach systems that can reach out to the grassroots level, as well as national organizations and agencies, giving it a unique position and network to reach out and empower girls and boys. Youth, including even some youth champions, fear saying something wrong and displeasing the government; in some instances, they do not know what rights they have to speak up and even fear arrest and prosecution.
Creating safe spaces for youth to participate in policy processes is crucial, together with interventions to increase political literacy and advocacy capacity among young people. There is also a need for long-term interventions targeted to governments and other members of societies that challenge the social norms and restrictions on the voices of youth. At present, the participation of young women in environmental protection and climate change has been fraught with challenges.
Young women need a safe space to participate in the protection of the environment, and they also need support in advancing their education and skills. To ensure that young people have agency, voice and variety of opportunities to participate in actions for sustainability a range of actions are needed to be inclusive of young women and men, rural and urban areas, skills levels, etc.
Through this collaboration there needs to be an improved way to access information, resources and opportunities. Existing UN-led youth networks, e. These networks are already up and running and provide significant synergy with the green job agenda.
Encourage and invest in the preparation of youth leaders to take on more responsibility and actively recruit more youth to join the movement and to build youth-to-youth networks. Train existing and upcoming youth leaders on relevant skills, such as network building, fundraising, and advocacy. The training programmes need to be widely available both on and offline to ensure they reach all young people and not only select youth representatives. Advocacy and Awareness Raising While the research shows that most young people are aware of issues such as climate change, unsustainable plastic use and air pollution though the level of awareness may be shallow , this is not the case for concepts such as green economies and green jobs.
The impact of lifestyle choices and positive behavioural changes is understood to some extent, but there seems to be little impetus to put this into practice. This research and other recent studies42 show that social media plays an important role in raising awareness. The medium that most young people go to for information outside school and family, is social media, especially Facebook and Twitter.
To connect with young people, disseminate reliable information and generate responses, social media must be central for effective results. A further finding from the research was that social media time competes with the time that young people could be using for action on sustainability, suggesting that combining the two might be effective.
To ensure the platforms are accessible to all types of groups, and connect with youth preferences for communication, consider extending this to TikTok, game streamers, or other forms of media normally consumed by youth. The social media contents should include awareness of how lifestyle choices can have positive impacts on the environment.
What is a green job?. World Employment Social Outlook: Trends Green Skills. Kingdom of Cambodia. Kingdom of Thailand. National Child and Youth Development Plan, — Maclean, R. Nachmany, M. National Policy on Green Growth. Powell, M. Socialist Republic of Viet Nam. National Strategy on Climate Change. Strietska-Ilina, O.
Sustainable Development Solutions Network-Youth. Talberth, J. The Research Base. United Nations Department of Public Information. The Future We Want. United Nations Development Group. World Population Prospects Data Booklet. Viet Nam National Mekong Committee. What are their jobs? OR What are the motivation factors for your choice of job?
What would stop you from pursuing your career path? To what extent do you think you are equipped with skills for the jobs you want? Why or why not? How did the school prepare you to pursue a job in these sectors? What differences are there in the skills developed at schools in urban versus rural areas? How about yourself? Who was the event organizer? What impact did the event have on you at a personal level?
To what extent did the event have impact at society level? Are these networks organized and run by youth or those enable youth to participate? How effective are they in promoting participation in climate action? How effective are they in promoting green skills development? If such networks do not exist for any reason, what do you think could be done to build them? Youth and CC and Green policy influencing and participation 2.
How is this reflected in your education curriculum and your participation in national processes? If so, what does that mean to you, and how can young people play a role in this? Can you tell us about your experience? Were you able to see any changes through your activism?
Are these objectives met? Govt, businesses etc. Existing national policies, climate action strategy by the government. What Ministries are involved and have a mandate to take action? To what extent are there opportunities for youth to be involved and share their opinion? Including 15—18 year olds?
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Those of us working from home during the coronavirus pandemic soon became a lot more familiar with Zoom. Read our guide on how to use Zoom and how to set up a Zoom meeting. See also video conferencing. If you work from home , you've probably heard about Zoom, one of the leading video conferencing software apps on the market. Zoom has exploded in popularity as people turn to video calling software amid the ongoing coronavirus pandemic.
Zoom has gone from conferencing app to the pandemic's social network. You can also find related words, phrases, and synonyms in the topics: Communications - general words. They got into the car and zoomed off. In the last few metres of the race , she suddenly zoomed ahead. Moving quickly. House prices suddenly zoomed up last year. Price increases. When we are zooming with our friends it reduces the solitude of social distancing. Have you Zoomed yet? Here's your chance to give it a try in our online book discussion.
Cars and trucks zoom past. If costs , sales , etc. Phrasal verbs zoom in. Examples of Zoom. Figure 15 shows the same form zoomed in during the [nt] portion. From the Cambridge English Corpus. The propor tion judged rightward was computed for each object-motion direction averaged across zooms and offsets. When zoomed in, a quick change in the sign of the torque becomes evident across the singular point, however, no chattering is observed.
She zooms in on one particular male she finds attractive. The work of these last authors shows the need for zooming in and out into textual content when searching and navigating in information via small screens. Perhaps, if the camera had zoomed in by a factor of 10, it would have found these dark-red concretions to be interesting, even in the blurred interest map.
What is needed is a format that encodes the lines in a drawing as vectors, and a reader that allows fast panning and zooming around the image. Once we have zoomed down to the exact frequency range, we need to extract a feature from the signal that can be used as an index for detecting mental stress. The vir tual model is hardware independent, transferable, and it can be viewed, rotated, panned, zoomed, and so for th with a web browser shareware plug-in.
One can watch the accumulative beginning to the song unfold as the camera zooms in on the band members one after another, introducing their respective parts, one by one. The camera zoomed in on the relevant parts of the women's bodies. From Europarl Parallel Corpus - English. To have people zooming out, day in and day out, is totally counter-productive.
From the Hansard archive. Example from the Hansard archive. Contains Parliamentary information licensed under the Open Parliament Licence v3. Television will be zooming in on and looking for them. Indeed, the unearned incomes of the privileged sector have zoomed upwards.
As with all money figures in the public sector, this has been zooming up over the years. See all examples of Zoom. These examples are from corpora and from sources on the web. Any opinions in the examples do not represent the opinion of the Cambridge Dictionary editors or of Cambridge University Press or its licensors. Translations of Zoom in Chinese Traditional.
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